T h e     G l o s s a r y
This section contains the Glossary of Terms available in the website.

No
Title Description in English
1
AdatCustomary laws.
2
AlangGirt used for supporting the roof.
3
Alang BuangA long pole placed in line with alang pendek, which can be found on traditional Malay houses that have a long roof. Both alang buang and alang pendek function as the foundation for lantai ambin (sleeping platform) and para alang buang (tie-beam rack)
4
Alang MudaCantilevered beam for supporting the rumah ibu roof.
5
Alang PanjangA long pole that separates roof border from wall border. A decoration called 'lebah bergantung' (hanging bees) is normally placed at the end of the crossbar of the 'kutai house of Perak'. Girt for supporting roof.
6
Alang PendekA long pole placed horizontally at the base of tebar layar (gable) or tubing layar. Also known by its other name, alang lintang (barrier across beam). Tie girt for supporting roof
7
Alang PintuA piece of wood measuring 60 cm to 90 cm, placed above the door and functioning as a frame for carvings.
8
Alang TingkapA piece of wood measuring 50 cm to 70 cm, placed above the windows and functioning as a wall frame.
9
Alas Kaki Tiang- Nil -
10
AlimReligious leader; usually much respected.
11
AluPounder, pestle for pounding padi.
12
AmanahReligious duty / responsibility which has to be performed or fulfilled.
13
Amir-uI-MukmininCommander of the faithful.
14
Anak buahFollowers.
15
AnjungA section of the house located in the front part of the building, usually next to the verandah. This space functions as a lounge. An entrance porch found in front of Malay houses.
16
AntanPestle or pounder for punding padi.
17
Atap- Nil -
18
Atap Cucuh- Nil -
19
Atap Genting- Nil -
20
Atap Ijok- Nil -
21
Atap KayuRoofing material made from thatch which are sewn together onto a wooden spine.
22
Atap RumbiaClay tiles for roofing.
23
Atap Senggora- Nil -
24
Awan BoyanContinuous carving in coiled form, looking like a moving cloud. A kind of carving found in Negeri Sembilan.
25
Awan JawaA form of carving that is very similar to awan boyan. Normally found in the southern parts of Peninsular Malaysia.
26
Awan LaratA form of coiled carving and knotted, like the morning clouds. This kind of carving is normally intergrated into pola lengkap. Wooden carvings where the design intertwines, commonly found on fascia boards.
27
Awan Sa'mayangThe carving that depicts the shape of two fighting cocks. It has a moralistic meaning to remind people not to quarrel among themselves; a problem should be settled amicably and with tolerance. This kind of carving is usually placed where it can be easily seen.
28
Awan TelipukA kind of intertwined carving, rolled like a cloud with its design from a kind of small lotus flower. Most of those carvings can be found in Negeri Sembilan and the land of Minangkabaus in West Sumatra.
29
Ayam Berlaga- Nil -
30
AzimatTalisman.
31
Babad JawaJavanese literature.
32
Badak MudikA carving with a moralistic interpretation originating from Sumatra and also found in Negeri Sembilan. The decoration is a stylised rhinoceros carved in rows in the form of 'pola bujang' (single pattern). The actual form of the rhinoceros is vaguely seen, perhaps due to the latter influence of Islam. This carving potrays the message that man should work hard for his own prosperity without neglecting his duties to his religion and the welfare of his society.
33
Badan RumahSection or part of a traditional Malay house i.e. from the floor to the tie-beam level. Sections are placed at the doors, windows as well as the inside and outside walls of the house. Carvings are heavily concentrated in this section of the house.
34
BajakPlough, a type of implement for cutting ang turning up soil.
35
BajiWedges used to tighten the mortise and tenon joints of the Malay house.
36
BakauSpecies of timber used to make stilts for houses, especially those built on water.
37
BalaiRoyal audience-hall.
38
BalauDurable hardwood of the genus Shorea.
39
Banir RabungA straight, vertical, and long pole placed at a meeting point of both roof caps. There are some old houses in Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, and Johor that feature carvings on this beam. Banir rabung is also known as tulang perabung or tulang rabung (ridge piece).
40
Banyaga ChattelSlave.
41
BatikIn Indonesia, the story of batik began as the kain simbut, where simple figures were drawn with rice paste, instead of wax, using the flat nib of split bamboo. Designs include bird and animal menageries interlocked with plant forms, with curling tendrils denoting fertility and productivity. Ancestral shrines and the swastika called the banji, which denoted good fortune, were all Chinese influences absorbed into the design.
42
Batu AcehA type of carved tombstone which is usually incribed with beautiful calligraphy. These tombstone were used to embellish the graves of Malay rulers in Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra from the 13th century to the 19th centuries.
43
Beliung- Nil -
44
BendaharaPrime Minister.
45
BendangPadi-field.
46
BendulWood placed between the dividing pillar and the body sections of the house. Normally, on old houses one could see a foundation for the threshold called tetupai bendul. Some old houses used to have carved tetupai bendul.
47
BentaraForest dwellers who were representatives of the Temenggong of Johor.
48
BertamA palm whose leaves are used for thatch roofs (Eugeissona tristis).
49
Beruk BergayutA Minangkabau carving. However, such carving which have moralistic messages are rarely seen in Malaysia.
50
Birai- Nil -
51
BomohA traditional medicine practitioner who is believed to possess special healing powers. He also performs religious rites in the village. In the case of the traditional Malay house, he carries out the reigious ceremonies on the occasion of site selection and the erection of the main column (tiang seri).
52
Bujang SelasarA form of rumah bujang (single house) usually found in Kelantan and Terengganu. The main building is supported by six main pillars which the balcony passage is located in the front. This space is without walls but it is usually blocked by a carved wooden grill, normally with a motif of 'pagar tinggalung'.
53
Bulu KumbaThis form of carving can be seen on the verandah roof of a Bugis's customary house. Bulu kumba means the hair on the forehead of an elephant. These carvings can also be seen on a type of house called 'limas Bugis' in Johor.
54
Buluh picapFlattened bamboo laid over floor joists as flooring material.
55
BumbungRoof.
56
Bumbung Adik-beradik- Nil -
57
Bumbung LimaHipped roof.
58
Bumbung LimasPyramidal roof.
59
Bumbung Lipat Kajang- Nil -
60
Bumbung PanjangThe characteristic saddleback roof found in traditional Malay houses.
61
Bumbung PerakGambrel roof.
62
Bunga CengkihA kind of carving derived from the clove flower motif. This is usually carved in the form of 'pola bujang' (single pattern).
63
Bunga HalangSquare pieces of white, red and black cloth placed on top of the columns in the Malay house. It is used to ward of evil spirits and ghosts in the house.
64
Bunga LawangStar anise, a kind of star-shaped flower with spicy taste used in cooking and also for medication. This motif usually carved in the form of 'pola bujang' (single pattern).
65
Bunga MatahariA kind of carving drived from the sunflower motif, usually carved in the form of 'pola bujang' (single pattern), symbolisings that the world is full of beauty. Design with rays radiating out in the form of the sun. Commonly found on the gables
66
Bunga MawarA kind of carving which is derived from the element of roses, a kind of plant usually grown in the home compound and garden. This seven-petalled flower symbol is an antiedote toward off evil and bad charms.
67
Bunga MelatiCarving derived from the jasmine flower, symbolising good manners and behaviour.
68
Bunga TanjungThe carving derived from mimosops elengi which symbolises the gesture of welcoming.
69
Bunga TerataiWatelily motif. This carving symbolises strong faith, cleanliness, determination and peace.
70
Bunga Tiang- Nil -
71
ButonA piece of wood measuring 60 cm to 100 cm, placed at the apex of the roof in houses of Terengganu, Kelantan, Kedah, and Johor. Buton wood carries the meaning that man is always moving and alive. There are some who believe that if the buton wood falls down or is struck by lightning, it indicates a bad omen to the owner.
72
Cap kurniaDeed of royal gift.
73
Cap zuriatConcessions given to members of the royalty and their heirs in perpetuity.
74
CengalA hardwood used for carvings and for the structure of Malay houses (Balanocarpus heimii).
75
ChikBamboo blind laced with twine.
76
Cucuran AtapEaves or the base of the roof cap also known as perkakian atap. Usually, one can see carved planks called papn cantik, cepu kasau, tumpu kasau or papan fasica below this eave.
77
Damar LautA wood used for construction of Malay houses (Parashorea stellata).
78
Damar MinyakA dark brownish resin painted on the Malay house to protect of the house.
79
DapurThe kitchen of the house.
80
DatuOfficial title meaning Lord, for males and females; powerful chief who was usually in charge of a region within the state; eg. in Muslim-dominated areas in Philippines.
81
Daun Pintu- Nil -
82
DepaDistance or span of one's arms stretched out straight to the left and to the right.
83
Dinding Janda BerhiasCarved wall very similar to papan kembung. Most of these carvings can be seen on wooden palaces in Kelantan and Terengganu.
84
Dinding Papan KembungThe carved walls usually found on old houses in Kelantan and Terengganu.
85
Dolmen- Nil -
86
DusunOrchard, piece of land with fruit trees.
87
Gajah MenyusuA housetype which has the kitchen joined to the back of the main house forming a shape like a baby elephant sucking milk from its mother, thus giving it the name gajah menyusu.
88
GambirA condiment made from gambir leaves and taken with betel leaf and areca nut.
89
Gelang TiangFretted carving which separates a pillar from its base or kaki cermin. Similar forms of carcing are also executed on the pillar top.
90
GelegarFloor joist.
91
Gelung KembarThe curved and coiled carvings separated by an oblong faceted frame. Inside this frame, there in another diamond-shaped frame which in turn contains two identical frames called ukiran gelung kembar. This carving often embellished the door leaves or windows of old mosques and madrasahs in the southern parts of Peninsular Malaysia.
92
Geruk- Nil -
93
GetahRubber.
94
Gotong-royong- Nil -
95
Gulung-gulungTo cooperate and work together for common purpose.
96
GununganThe carving derived from the shape of a 'mountain range' sometimes called gunung bertuah (lucky mountain). This kind of decoration is usually placed at the roof ridge, on wedding dais, and on short Malay weapons.
97
Gutta percaThe latex-like sap of various species of Blanco Palaquim.
98
HakimJudge.
99
HantuGhost.
100
HastaLength from the elbow to the tip of the middle finger.
101
HikayatHistorical writing/literature.
102
HilirLower, hence hiliran, downstream.
103
Hujung SerambiThe front end (found on the right) of the verandah of the Minangkabau house.
104
HulubalangTraditional chieftains.
105
Ibu RumahLiterally it means the mother of the house. She is the guardian of the house and is the key person involved in the religious ceremony of the selection of the site for the house.
106
IkatWith traditional textiles, colour was never painted or applied directly onto a cloth. Ikat (to bind) is one of the oldest textile decorating techniques used in Southeast Asia. The threads are separated into bundles and tied into sections before they are immersed in dye. They are then dried and re-tied into different sections before re-dyeing in another colour. The process is repeated for each colour and only then are the threads woven together.
107
ImamImam
108
IstanaPalace.
109
Istana Ampang TinggiA former palace built during the reign of Yamtuan Ulin (1861-1869), situated in Pusat Karyaneka Seremban, Negeri Sembilan.
110
Istana Jahar- Nil -
111
Istana JohorA former palace built during the reign of Sultan Mahmud II (1837-1886) of Kelantan. Now housed in the temporary Kelantan State Museum, situated in the neighbourhood of Istana Balai Besar, Kota Bharu, Kelantan.
112
Istana KenanganAn old wooden palace located at Bukit Chandan, Kuala Kangsar, Perak. Now is the Perak Royal Museum.
113
Istana KolamAn old wooden palace situated at Kampung Kolam, Kuala Terengganu. It was built during the reign of Sultan Zainal Abidin III (1881-1919).
114
Istana Lama Seri MenantiA wooden palace, built in 1902, situated at Seri Menanti, Negeri Sembilan. This former palace was once the residence of the Yang Dipertuan Besar of Negeri Sembilan.
115
Istana SatuOne of the former palaces of Terengganu royalty, built during the reign of Sultan Zainal Abidin III (1881-1919). It was moved from its original site behind the Istana Maziah, Kuala Terengganu to the National Museum.
116
Istana Seri AkarA former wooden palace, built during the reign of Sultan Mahmud II (the Sultan who ruled Kelantan between 1837-1886). This palace was once the residence of Tengku Zainal Abidin who assumed the title of Seri Akar Diraja. He was the son of Tengku Abdul Kadir, the last king of Patani. However, this beautifully carved palace was demolished in 1980.
117
Istana TeleThis wooden palace is also known as Istana Tengku Nik, built in 1888 during the reign of Sultan Zainal Abidin III (1881-1919). It was moved from its original site behind the Istana Maziah to Padang Merdeka near Kuala Terengganu.
118
Itik Pulang PetangA kind of carving with ducks as the motif containing moralistic message. This carving is originated from West Sumatra (the land of the Minangkabaus) and is believed to tbe influenced by Minangkabau customs. Such carvings can still be found in Negeri Sembilan.
119
Jamban CurahA pour-flush toilet.
120
Jamban JitraAn adapted pour-flush toilet, named after a place called Jitra.
121
Jamban KorekA pit toilet
122
JawiMalay language written in Perso-Arabic script; a term used in Mecca to refer generally to those from the Malay-Indonesian Archipelago.
123
Jebak PuyuhSangkar yang dibuat khas untuk menjebak burung puyuh. Biasanya pada daun pintu jebak dihias dengan ukiran daun ketumbit jantan dan daun uju-uju. Menurut kepercayaan ia dapat memberi daya tarikan kepada puyuh di luar jebak untuk masuk ke jebak.
124
JejalaMulti-panelled, fenestrated carvings above doors which encourage ventilation between rooms
125
JelapangA samll shed raised above the ground for storing padi.
126
JenangThe wooden frames for walls, windows, and doors, also known by other names such as jenang tingkap, jenang pintu and etc.
127
JengkalSpan or distance between the tip of the thumb and the tip of any of of the four fingers.
128
Jeria- Nil -
129
JihadStruggle for Islam; the holy war, but used commonly in the Muslim areas of South-east Asia in the earlier centuries as a cry for unity among fellow Muslims to destroy the Christian Europeans in the area.
130
JisimPhysical body
131
Kaabah(Meaning cube), the hub of Islam; the goal of the hajj, and the focus of the prayers of the faithful
132
Kabong A palm whose leaves are used for thatch roofs (Arenga pinata).
133
Kacing Tunjuk LangitShroud
134
KadiIslamic magistrate; solemniser of marriage
135
KafanOld cloth or sarong worn for bathing.
136
Kain BasahanA piece of unsewn white cloth used to wrap the corpse
137
Kain KafanThis is marked by a large diamond shape in the centre with the remaining area dyed dark blue or green. Designs are drawn by brush in yellow clay, covered with glue, then inladed with gold leaf. Kain kembungan were reserved for VVIPs or were hung by the royal bed.
138
Kain Kembangan- Nil -
139
Kaki BendulThe base of a pillar found on old houses in Kelantan and Terengganu. Its corner and rounded base are often decorated with lorekan kumai (fretted carvings) and also pillars 'ring'.
140
Kaki CerminA pounder operated by leg.
141
Kaki Lesong- Nil -
142
KambiVillage.
143
Kampong (Kampung)A village; a compound of houses usually under the authority of an important individual
144
KanchuChinese river headman, specific to the opening of pepper and gambier agriculture in Johor
145
Kancing- Nil -
146
KangkarThe settlement of the Kanchu, usually located at the foot of the river.
147
Kapitan ChinaLeader of the Chinese community.
148
KapurLime that is often obtained from the buring of cockle and other sea shells.
149
Kasau AtapCommon rafter.
150
Kasau BetinaCommon rafter.
151
Kasau JantanCommon rafter.
152
Kasau LentikEnd of rafters on the Negeri Sembilan saddle-roofed houses. This part is normally carved.
153
KatiA weight of 11/3 lb.
154
Kawasan penghuluThe territorial domain of the village leader.
155
Kayu Melintang- Nil -
156
Kayu Penutup- Nil -
157
Kayu Tekar- Nil -
158
KebunGarden.
159
Kedai KopiCoffee shop.
160
Kedai RuncitGrocery shop.
161
Kekaras- Nil -
162
Kekisi- Nil -
163
Kekuda- Nil -
164
Kelarai- Nil -
165
Kelek Anak- Nil -
166
KemenyanBenzoin, a type of aromatic resin from a tree (styrax benzoin). When burnt, it emits a smoke and a strong incense. It is also used in religious ceremonies.
167
KenduriA feast in which most of the villagers, friends and relatives are invited to. Feasts are held in conjunction with various ceremonies including the erection of the main column (tiang seri), weddings and other festive occasions.
168
Kepala CicakThe carvings derived from the shape of lizard head. This kind of carving is usually placed at the threshold corner, at the base of the gables, at the rack base and also at the point where the roof caps meet. This carving was influenced by the carvings of Sumatra and can be found on the houses of the Malays originated from Sumatra and Patani. According to an old belief, this type of motif gives spiritual support to its owner and protects him from evel deeds.
169
Kepala Pintu- Nil -
170
Kepala TiangThe end of the top part of a pillar with kuku tiang (pillars' nails) to strengthen and tighten up the position of the wooden tie-beam. This part is normally carved.
171
Kepala TingkapWall on the upper part of a window, usually fixed with lebuk jejala or ukiran tebuk terus (direct piercing carving).
172
KepukContainer for keeping or storing padi.
173
KeramatGraves of Saints
174
KerandaWooden coffin
175
KerantongMosque drum, sometimes called bedok or beduq in Achenese
176
KerisMalay wavy blade dagger
177
KerjasamaTo work together for a common purpose.
178
KesunyianQuiet, lonesome or absence of human company.
179
Ketua anak negeriA leader of the local-born community.
180
Ketuk- Nil -
181
KhutbahSermon or pronouncement given by an Imam at Friday prayers
182
KiapangdilihanA Muslim slave who had committed criminal offence, adultery or not paid his debts.
183
KiblatThe wall of the prayer hall orientated towards Kaabah of Mecca and therefore varying in direction acording to geographical region.
184
Kkasau Lintang- Nil -
185
KolongUnderside of a Malay house raised on stilts.
186
KongsiChinese clan house
187
KrembatOr rembatan is a wooden crossbar linking one pillar to another. It is found on some traditional houses of Kelantan and Terengganu and is usually carved at its ends.
188
KualaEstuary
189
KualaRiver-mouth.
190
KuborGrave.
191
Kubur Liang Batu- Nil -
192
Kucing LalokLalok' is a Minangkabau-Malay word which means sleeping. 'Kucing lalok' means sleeping cat, a kind of carving which originated from Sumatra and can be found in Negeri Sembilan. This carving is derived from the motif of a sleeping cat. The morale behind this motif is that it potrays a lazy person expecting a better life without making any effort to achieve it.
193
KufurRejection of the message brought by the Prophet Muhhamad from Allah, ingratitude.
194
Kuku Tiang- Nil -
195
Kukut tupaiWooden wedge or bracket, resembling a squirrel, used to reinforce the main structure of an Orang Asli dwelling.
196
Kurung- Nil -
197
LaksamanaAdmiral who was in charge of all things naval.
198
LaksamanaAn important official whose principal duty was to be in charge of the ruler's fleet.
199
LansaranDance platform, unique to Murut longhouses.
200
LantaiFloor.
201
Lantai Jeria- Nil -
202
Larian Tikus- Nil -
203
Lebuk JejalaThe wall of a house with holes in the shape of nets usually placed on the upper part of a wall, windows or doors. This kind of carving is very useful for ventilation. The concept and function of this carving is to give peace and comfort to the owner, besides averting stuffineses in the house.
204
LembingSpear.
205
LeparAlso known as lepau, This is a room in the anterior part of a traditional Malay house. Guests are received and entertained here. This room forms part of traditional Malay houses in Kedah, Perak, Kelantan, and Terengganu.
206
LepauAn extension found in front of the main house (rumah ibu).
207
LipaA dug-out.
208
LotengAttic of the Malay house.
209
LuwaranIslamic code of laws.
210
MadrasahA small mosque; or not used for Friday prayers; a Modernist Islamic school.
211
Mahkota AtapA kind of decoration placed at the summit of the roof of a mosque or traditional wooden madrasah, made of wood, concretel and bronza. This kind of decoration mainly embellished the traditional mosques in Melaka. This roof 'crown' symbolises supremacy and the peacefulness of the mind from a building use for worshipping Allah.
212
MakamGrave, graveyard.
213
MarhumTerm used for the deceased royal family.
214
MayatCorpse
215
MengkuangA pandanus plant (pandanus aurantiacus) used for making mats and other household implements.
216
Menhir- Nil -
217
Menurun BatuTo replace the temporary gravemarkers with the permenent ones, usually followed by a ceremony and feast.
218
MerantiA medium hardwood very commonly used for the construction of Malay houses (shorea albida).
219
MerbauA wood used for construction of Malay houses (Intsia bakeri).
220
MihrabThe niche placed in the mosque in the direction of prayer.
221
MimbarHigh pulpit-like structure in the prayer hall of a mosque, from the Imam reads the khutbah.
222
MinangkabauMuslim people whose homeland lies in Sumatra. They have migrated widely and some have settled in the state of Negeri Sembilan in Malaysia. Minangkabau women have wide influence and power because rights in land are traced through women. The Minangkabau houses is characterised by its sharp curved roofs.
223
MuftiHighest religious authority empowered to issue binding Islamic decla ration (fatwa).
224
MukimSub-district.
225
MukminPerson of faith.
226
MuqarnaStone or plaster stalactite ornamentation in Islamic architecture.
227
NafasSoul.
228
Naga ClothThe Naga people live in the remote mountains between India and Myanmar. Their attire is visually striking and is woven with an intricate technique where designs are visible on only one side of the cloth.
229
Naga-naga- Nil -
230
NesanGravemarker.
231
NiatIntention; vow.
232
NibongA palm which have rounded stems used for columns of temporary structures and also as floor boards when the stem is split into two (oncosperma tigillaria).
233
NipahA palm found in swampy areas. Its leaves are used for making roof thatch and as tobacco leaves (nipa fruticans).
234
Ombak-ombakThis semi-cricular carving is usually carved on papan penutup rasuk (beam cap plank) and gelegar (bridging joist). This wavy carving can also be seen on langit-langit (tester or ceiling), and perabung (roof ridge).
235
Orang AsliIndigenous groups living on the Malay peninsula, excluding ethnic Malays.
236
Orang KayaMen of substance.
237
Orang LautSea and reverine people in the western half of the Malay-Indonesian Archipelago.
238
PadiRice, cooked rice is called nasi.
239
PaduakanA Bugis sailing vessel.
240
Pagar TinggalungThe cerandah's wall that is fenced with grill or pierced carving. Its height is about eye level while sitting cross-legged on the loggia. Pagar means fence or border while the word tinggalung is derived from the work tinggali which in Palembang-Malay means sight. Pagar tinggalung means limit of sight or vision. Indeed, in hte loggia space there is a fence which limits the view. Pagar tinggalung is often fixed to the paha tangga staircase to prevent users of the staircase from falling.
241
Paha Tangga- Nil -
242
Pahar Pintu- Nil -
243
PajakRevenue farm.
244
Pandangan Hadapan- Nil -
245
Pandangan Tepi- Nil -
246
Pangkal SerambiThe back portion (found on the left) of the verandah of the Minangkabau house.
247
PanglimaA titular office; village chief known for his military prowess.
248
Pangsi- Nil -
249
Papan CantikA kind of horizontal carving on papan fascia or papan tumpu kasau found on long roof and tiered-roof houses in Kelantan and Terengganu. This kind of carving can also be found on papan fascia of the roof of a traditional mosque (mosque having two or three tiered roofs).
250
Papan Gendeng- Nil -
251
Papan Kembung- Nil -
252
Para A kitchen shelf made from wooden slats with gaps in between to allow for ventilation and to drip dry the plates and crockery.
253
Para Buang- Nil -
254
ParangMachete.
255
Parang RosakDecorative motifs designed on batik textile.
256
ParitA drain.
257
Patah JointA joint between the saddle roof of the main house and the lean-to roof of the verandah. It has a break between the two roofs thus giving it the name patah.
258
PatinggiPowerful head of the state; used in Sarawak.
259
Pelancar- Nil -
260
PelantarRaised platform which is open and used for washing and drying purposes. It is found at the back of the house.
261
Pelapik TiangFooting for supporting the columns of the Malay house.
262
PembesarClose aides to the King or Sultan.
263
Pemeleh- Nil -
264
Pemeting- Nil -
265
PengiranPowerful nobility in Brunei.
266
Penyelak Pintu- Nil -
267
Perabung- Nil -
268
PerahuMalay boat without deck.
269
PeranAttic or tie-beam floor under the base of the gables covered with atap (thatach), use as a store to keep things that are rarely use. Attics can normally be found on traditional houses of Perak, Kedah, Kelantan, Terengganu, Perlis, Selangor and Pahang. Traditional houses of Melaka and Negeri Sembilan also have attics but their floors are slightly bigger and cover the whole roof cap.
270
Perenggan BumbungRoof section comprising of construction materials, i.e., from the location of the long tie-beam up to the ridge piece. At this section of most old houses, one can see an attic. Among the frameworks of the house featured in this section are the main rafters, lesser rafters, purlin, larian tikus, ridge piece, jeria, king post, naga-naga, atap bumbing, and etc.
271
Perenggan DindingSection of the building in the traditional Malay house, from the floor up to kepala tiang level. This section has dual functions. Besides its functions in the construction of the house, the wall also acts as a decoration. The wall potrays the social status of the house owner. This wall section is comprised of a wooden jenang, wall, window, door and etc.
272
Perenggan TiangThe section of a traditional Malay house from ground level to the floor, consists of padded footing, steps or ladder, bridging joist, belira, bearer beam, floor, cleat, pillar, threshold, and also a covered space under the house.
273
PeribumiSons of the soil'; a term employed by the Malaysian government to refer to Malays and all other indigenous groups in the country.
274
PesantrenCommon Malay words pertaining to Malay religious institutions.
275
PesisirCoastal.
276
PetalingA hardwood used for construction of Malay houses (Ochanostachys amentacea).
277
PikulA weight of 133 ¼ lb.
278
Pilin BergandaA kind of carving in the shape of letter 'S', interrelated and joined in a row, usually found on the sheath of a kris, knife, bronzeware, personal ornaments, and etc.
279
Pintu Gelangsar- Nil -
280
Pintu GerbangA kind of structure connected to the gate with door leaves that open in the inside; the roof cap and the top of the gateway are usually decorated with beautiful carvings. These arches normally form part of the house of wealthy people or the palaces of Malay rulers. Finely carved gateways symbolises supremacy, greatness, good behaviour, peacefulness, and nobility. Most arches of old houses that belong to the wealthies and to the Malay rulers in Kelantan and Kedah are beautifully decorated with carvings of 'bunga tanjung' (mimosops elengi) motif, as a sign of welcome. If someone enters a house other than through the gateway, he will be interpreted as having bad intentions.
281
Pisang SesikatA small lean-to roof usually used to cover staircases and for minor extensions.
282
Pua KumbuThese were the sacred cloth of the Iban, and were used for important rituals and ceremonies. A pua with an appropriate design would be hung for the healing ceremony or slept under to receive a spiritual dream. The main designs and colours of the traditional pua yield a reading that indicates both the power of the cloth and the status of the weaver.
283
Pucuk RabungA kind of carging found on most of the Malay houses in Malaysia as well as in the Malay Archipelago. The motif contains the element of bamboo shoot and is also known as 'tumpal' ie. The triangle carving. The base and its triangles are combined with floral elements and newly-formed fruit. This kind of carving is often placed at the eaves plank and on the surface of the gables.
284
Pucuk Rebung- Nil -
285
Punden Berondak- Nil -
286
RajaKing or Sultan.
287
RakyatSubject; people.
288
Rakyat BiasaOrdinary subject, refers to person of non-royalty, and not holding any title.
289
Rantau BaratThe western areas, used in the Melaka period to refer to outlying dependencies.
290
RasukBeam used for supporting the floor joists.
291
Rasuk PanjangFloor beam.
292
Rasuk PendekFloor joist.
293
Rembat- Nil -
294
RezekiLivelihood, sustenance, food.
295
Rmah Tiang Dua BelasA form of traditional Malay house in the states of Kelantan and Terengganu. The main building is supported by twelve main pillars. On the suface of its gables, there is a wood carving called pemeleh. This type of traditional house is often embellished with beautiful carvings on the interior as well as the exterior part of the wall. House with 12 columns
296
Roda BerpusingSemicircular motif for wooden carvings of airvents on top of the windows in the Malay house.
297
RuhSpirit.
298
RumahHouse.
299
Rumah bicaraAn audience-hall where decisions are made by the Datus.
300
Rumah BujangA form of long roof house that has six main pillars at the main building of the house. It is also known as rumah bujang selasar in Kelantan and Terengganu. This house can also be found in Kedah, Perlis, and Perak. Bachelor's house, consisting of a small house with six columns
301
Rumah Bujang BaratA form of limas house in Terengganu, with a long and horizontal roof. The surface of tis gables is tied with atap Singgora (a kind of tile roof imported from Patani). It also contains papan pemeleh, with its base resting on the same level as the base of the roof.
302
Rumah Bujang BerserambiBachelor's house with a verandah and has nine columns.
303
Rumah Bumbung PanjangA kind of traditional Malay house with a straight horizontal ridge. Its corners are fixed with upright walls called tebar layar (gables). This type of house can be found throughout Peninsular Malaysia and is called by various names such as the Perak kutai house, the long house of Kedah and Perlis, the loggia house of Melaka and etc.
304
Rumah IbuThe main part or core of the traditional Malay house to which the kitchen and other parts are added onto when the house expands.
305
Rumah kutaiCentral Perak variation on the long ridge roof house whose walls, and sometimes floors, are made entirely of bamboo matting; the roof is made from atap.
306
Rumah lepauTraditional house in Kedah or Perlis which has been extended with a lepau at the front.
307
Rumah LimasA traditional Malay house that uses five ridges, comprising of one straight and horizontal ridge connected to four vertical ridges towards the eaves. The word limas is derived from the words lima (five) and emas (gold). The first ridge symbolises supremacy and greatness, the second ridge symbolises peace, the third symbolises good behaviour and manners, the fourth symbolises stability, and the fifth ridge symbolises prosperity. Limas houses are known by various names; in Terengganu, they are known as limas bungkus; in Perak, they re known as limas potong and limas fesyen Belanda. In other states of Peninsular Malaysia, theses houses have other particular names.
308
Rumah penghuluHeadman?s house.
309
Rumah Pisang Sesikat- Nil -
310
Rumah Potong PerakA form of limas house with five ridge pieces as in the five ridges houses or rumah limas bungkus, except that there is an open roof for ventilation. Normally, this triangular-opened roof is embellished with carvings. In Terengganu and Kelantan, this type of house is easily discernible by the Kayu buton placed at they apex of its roof.
311
Rumah Potongan BelandaGambrel roof believed to be copied from the Dutch colonial masters.
312
Rumah rakitHouse built on a raft above water.
313
Rumah selangHouse comprising two bumbung panjang structures connected by a covered passageway.
314
Rumah Tangga- Nil -
315
Rumah TengahA long-roofed traditional Malay house that consists of three divisions: rumah ibu (main house), rumah tengah (middle house), and rumah dapur (kitchen house). The middle house section is situated in the centre of the house. In the state of Terengganu, there is another form of limas house called rumah tengah (middle house). The middle part of the house, found only in larger houses, located in between the main house and the kitchen.
316
Rumah Tiang EnamHouse with six columns.
317
Rumah tiang seribuHouse built on stilts above water.
318
RumbiaA palm whose leaves are used for thatch roofs (Metroxylon spp.)
319
Rurnah dangauVernacular dwelling comprising one single house unit.
320
SalatRitual prayer.
321
SalihinPious persons; good deeds doer.
322
SarongCloth worn round the middle of the body and tucked round the waist.
323
SawahWet or irrigated padi-field.
324
SayidNoble (by birth), who claimed to be the direct descendant of the Prophet Muhammad.
325
SelangA walkway which is used as an extension device to join the main house (rumah ibu) and the kitchen at the back of the house.
326
Selasar- Nil -
327
SemangatA vital forch which many Malays believe exists in both men and things.
328
Semangat RumahThe spirit of the Malay house, which many Malays believe that it must be appeased in order to have a peaceful and harmonious stay in the house.
329
Semangat rumahSpirit of a Malay house that must be appeased for the home to be peaceful.
330
SerambiVerandah.
331
Serambi GantungA verandah located adjacent to the main house (rumah ibu) but on the opposite side of the serambi semanaik. It literally means "hanging verandah" because it has a floor lower than that of the main house.
332
Serambi Hujung- Nil -
333
Serambi Pangkal- Nil -
334
Serambi SemanaikA verandah located adjacent to the main house (rumah ibu). It literally means "verandah of the same level" because it is on the same floor level as the main house.
335
SerampangA trident.
336
ShahidMartyr
337
SharifNoble (by birth).
338
SigaiRough ladder; peg, crosspiece forming a step in a rough ladder.
339
Silang gantungOpen scissors?, gable horns formed by extending rafters skywards at the gable ends of a bumbung panjang house.
340
Singhorra tileBrittle, clay roof tile from Singhorra (Songkhla) in southern Thailand.
341
SirihBetel leaves which are chewed with areca nuts. The leaves are also used for religious offerings.
342
SobekFiligree-like woodcarving.
343
SongketThis flabled "cloth of gold" was traditionally woven by palace artisans using silk and gold threads, the most luxurious and expensive materials of the time. Sim said in those days, the gold was beaten flat, cut into thin strips, then wrapped around a silk core to produce the gold thread.
344
Sulur BayungThe name of a carving placed at the end of a ridge (long tie-beam). The traditional palaces of Malay rulers and the traditional mosques in Melaka used this form of carving. Sulur bayung on traditional mosques in Melaka is made of cement or metal. This kind of carving is known to have been used on the former palace of Sultan Mansor Shah (1456-1477) of Perak. Sulur bayung is a form of carving that imitates the young shoot of a plant name lembayung. This carving is use on the gables of the national Museum.
345
SurahChapter of the Koran.
346
SurauA small building where Muslims gather for worship.
347
SyahbandarHarbour master.
348
SyirikAssociation of any other thing with Allah.
349
TahalilA chant, to recite verses of the Koran.
350
TakdirPredestination; decree.
351
TalangGutter.
352
Tali sipatPlump (in carpentry)
353
TalkinGrave tutorial.
354
TampanThis is cotton textiles which were once made in south Sumatra. Weddings and house-raising ceremonies were all marked by the use of tampan as seats of honour, dowry exchange covers for ritual gifts and protective crowns atop house-poles. Complex geometric designs and motifs of humans, animals, ships and mythical figures are discernible on these cloths, and remain an intriguing reminder of a vanished culture.
355
Tanah PerkuburanGraveyard; Muslim cemetery.
356
TanjuOpen Deck on a longhouse.
357
Tapak Alang- Nil -
358
TapisLampung culture, which has disappeared, was once one of the most spectacular cultures of Southeast Asia. Its strategic location near the Sunda Straits brought in great wealth and exotic, costly materials such as mica, felt, silk and gold threads, all of which were used to adorn textiles.
359
TariqatIslamic mystical brotherhood.
360
TarsilakGenealogical tree.
361
Tebar Layar (Tupang Layar) Triangular gable ends of the Malay house. They have many designs and serve to ventilate the house.
362
Tebuk separuhSemi-piercing, with regard to carved wall panels.
363
Tebuk terus / tembusDirect piercing, with regard to carved wall panels.
364
Tebuk timbulEmbossed piercing. With regard to carved wall panels.
365
Tenggala- Nil -
366
Tepung TawarA flour mixture used for offerings in religious ceremonies.
367
TiangColumn.
368
Tiang Gantung- Nil -
369
Tiang Serambi- Nil -
370
Tiang SeriThe main column which is located in the main house. It is the first column to be raised in the erection of the house and it is erected with a religious ritual.
371
Tiang Tongkat- Nil -
372
Tiang Utama- Nil -
373
Tolong-menolongThe concept of helping each other.
374
TombakLance, spear, weapon with a long shaft and a pointed steel head.
375
TongkangChinese sailing vessel.
376
TongkatIntermediate post supporting a house floor.
377
TripangSea-slug, beche-de-mer.
378
Tulang BumbungRoof ridge.
379
Tumbuk padi- Nil -
380
TumpalSee pucuk rebung (bamboo shoot).
381
Tumpu Kasau- Nil -
382
Tunjuk Langgit A piece of wood use to support the roof house and is placed on top of alang lintang and kayu naga. Some of them are beautifully carved especially those found on old houses. Kingpost.
383
TupaiA corbel used in joints for extensions. It usually supports floor joists and other beams.
384
Tupai TatagunTatagun is derived from the word atas dahan (on the branch of the tree). Tupai tatagun means a squirrel on a branch, a form of Minangkabau decoration which can be found in Negeri Sembilan. Today, this motif is no longer utilisedl what emerges are only branches and overhanging leaves which look like a squirrel on a branch. The disappearance of living things motifs took place after the Minangkabaus were influenced by Islam.
385
Tupai-tupaiA piece of wood functioning as a threshold lining, and is usually carved. It is normally located on the pillar.
386
Turus Dinding- Nil -
387
Tutup Rabun- Nil -
388
Tutup Tumpu Kasau- Nil -
389
UlamakReligious teacher; learned doctors of Islam; Muslim preachers.
390
Undan-undanGable ledge.
391
UstazTitle given to religious teacher.
392
WakafAn inalienable endowment to the community whose capital or revenue is devoted to specific religious institution or other pious purpose, tanah wakaf (graveyard) is one of the purposes. An open shed found on the East Coast states of Peninsular Malaysia, used as a common gathering plac for men. Property donated for religious or community use.
393
WaliA muslim saint; also means legal guardian.
394
ZakatMuslim tithe.
395
ZikirChanting of God's name and attributes; remembrance.
 
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